Suffering is caused to fish throughout the process of capture until death, which may be considered as 3 parts: capture, landing and the time between landing and death. The processing of fish alive when landed is discussed in humane slaughter. The suffering caused to fish during capture and landing in the major methods of fishing is discussed in the pages below. 

The environmental problems caused by each fishing method are also discussed, since these are usually, if not always, welfare problems too.  Measures to reduce the numbers of bycatch animals caught are an obvious way to reduce suffering. Measures to reduce stress and injury to the fish that are caught as bycatch are also discussed e.g. shorter periods between setting and retrieving nets and lines. These are likely to reduce the suffering of bycatch and may also benefit individuals of the target species.